Durum wheat which is consumed commonly in the whole world is derived from a Latin word “durum” meaning “hard”. High protein content and hard structure make durum wheat convenient to be used for special purposes. The most widely known one is pasta. Durum wheat which is bigger in size than the other types has also endosperm that gives yellow color to pasta. Semolina is made when durum wheat is grinded and it is used in the production of specific pasta and special bread types.
Durum wheat is not only used in pasta production but also in couscous and bulghur production. Durum wheat of which endosperm structure is quite hard intense yellow colored pigments of it raises the quality of pasta while increasing the efficiency of semolina. Being rich in protein, mineral and vitamin, makes durum wheat a nutritious food. That the demand for pasta is increasing as it has practical usage, long shelf life and nourishing features and that bulghur as a healthy and tasteful food product has gradually become popular in recent years point out that the need for durum wheat will increase, too.
WORLD DURUM WHEAT PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
The global cultivation area of durum wheat is estimated to be around 16.7 million hectare. According to International Grain Council (IGC) data, global durum wheat production which was 35.4 million tons in 2010/11 season reached to 36.6 million tons by increasing nearly 2 million tons in the following season. Although a decrease of nearly 2 million tons in 2012/13 season was observed, in 2013/2014 durum wheat production increased to 38.8 million tons. In the following season the productions decreased to 34,5 however it has seen the level of According to the forecasts, there will be a little fall in durum wheat production and it will decrease to 34.5 million tons. 39.1 million tons in 2015/2016 season. The estimations show that durum wheat production will continue to increase and will reach 40,7.
EU is the top producer in global durum wheat production. The production, which was at the amount of 9.1 million tons in 2010/11 season, decreased to 8.2 million tons in the season of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 and to 8.1 million tons in 2014/2014. Together with the continuing decrease the production was 7,6 million in 2014/2015, yet in the following season it increased to 8.5 million tons. It is thought that the figures will increase to 9,5 million tons in the following season.
Canada follows EU countries with 5.4 million tons in terms of durum wheat production in 2015/2016 season. In 2010/2011 season, Canada produced 3 million tons of durum wheat, in 2011/2012 season 4.2 million tons, and in 2012/13 season it reached to 4.6 million tons. Durum wheat production was 6,5 in 2013/2014 season, 5.2 in 2014/2015 and it is thought to be 7.8 in 2016/2017.
Italy comes right after Canada with 4.2 million tons in terms of durum wheat production in 2015/2016 season. Italy produced nearly 4.1 million tons of durum wheat in 2010/2011 and this decreased to 3.9 million tons in 2011/2012 season and it reached to 4.2 million tons again in 2012/13 season. This figure came down to 3.9 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Italy is thought to produce 5.0 million tons of durum wheat. It can be said that the other top producer countries are Turkey, France, USA and Spain.
WORLD DURUM WHEAT TRADE
EU countries and Algeria are among top durum wheat producers. EU has conducted 1.9 million tons of durum wheat import in 2010/2011 season. EU imports which was recorded as 1.8 million tons in 2011/2012, and 1.4million tons in 2012/2013 season was determined to be 1.9 million tons in 2013/2014 season, 2.8 million tons in 2014/2015 season and 2.4 million tons in 2015/2016 season. This figure is estimated to be 2.3 million tons in 2016/2017 season.
Algeria imported 1.3 million tons in 2010/11 season. Imports rate showed an increase in 2011/12 season and reached to 1.8 million tons. However it decreased nearly 200 thousand tons in 2012/13 season and the country’s durum wheat import rate decreased to 1.6 million tons. In 2013/14 season, 1.5 million tons, in 2014/2015 and 2015/2015 seasons 1.7 million tons of durum wheat is imported. IGC export estimations indicate that this statistics is around 1.9 million tons in 2016/2017 season. Other important importers of durum wheat are Morocco, Tunis, USA, Venezuela and Japan.
The leading countries in global durum wheat export are Canada and Mexico. Canada alone operates more than half of the global durum wheat export. Durum wheat export which was 3.1 million tons in 2010/11 season increased to 3.8 million tons in 2011/12 season. Canadian durum wheat export rate increased 430 thousand tons and reached to 4.2 million tons in 2012/2013 season. In 2013/2014 4.7 million tons, in 2014/2015 season 5.6 million tons and in 2015/2016 4.3 million tons of durum wheat is exported by Canada. And in 2016/2017 season an export of 4.9 million tons is foreseen.
Mexico, who couldn’t achieve 1 million tons between 2009/2010 and 2012/2013 seasons, has shown a significant success and reached 1.2 million tons in 2013/2014 season, 1 million in 2014/2015 season, and 1.4 million tons in 2015/2016 season and got ahead of 28-country EU. For 2016/2017 season the recorded estimation of IGC is again 1.4 million tons.
At the third rank, there is EU countries. Their total exports are recorded as 2 million tons in 2010/2011 and after that there was a significant decrease and the figures have fallen down to 1.3 million tons in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. In 2013/2014 season it was seen as 1 million tons. IGC estimations for 2016/2017 indicate that this figure has exceeded 1.1 million tons. In durum wheat exports USA, Australia and Turkey are following these three rivals.
DURUM WHEAT PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
According to the IGC report, when Turkish durum wheat production on an annual base is examined, it is seen that, Turkey has reached to 3.5 million tons in 2010/2011 season and this figure increased to 3.9 million tons in the next season. Through the four-year fluctuation the production was 3.3 million in 2012/2013, 4.1 in 2013/2014, 3.3 in 2014/2015 and again 4.1 in 2015/2016. IGC points out 3.6 million tons for 2016/2017 season.
FOREIGN TRADE OF TURKISH DURUM WHEAT
According to Turkish Grain Board, 2013 Grain Report data, durum wheat import of Turkey remained changeable between 2006 and 2013. Import rate which was around 130 thousand tons between 2007 and 2009 decreased in 2010 and 2011. It showed a significant increase in 2012 and recorded as 217 thousand 583 tons. It also reached to the highest rate of last 8 years and around 588 thousand tons of durum wheat was imported in 2013. Increase in export of finished products in Turkey has an important role in this significant increase of imported durum wheat in 2013, which is used in pasta production.
Durum wheat export of Turkey is also unstable. The export amount was 20 thousand tons in 2010/2011 season and it fell down to 2 in 2011/2012 and to 1 in 2012/2013 and 4 in 2013/2014 season along with a significant decrease. After that, with a rapid increase this figures reached to 101 thousand in 2014/2015 and 100 thousand in 2016/2017. It is seen that the corresponding number for 2016/2017 is 75 thousand tons for Turkey’s durum wheat exports.